Ethics at a Glance
s with many ethical perspectives, rights-based approaches also have their roots with ancient philosophers concerned with the concept of justice, as well as natural law philosophers who recognized a potential for certain rights inherent in human nature. Natural rights are generally held to be a gift of nature or God that cannot be taken away. Modern notions of natural rights are most closely associated with the seventeenth century British philosopher John Locke (Almond, 1993) and his contention that human beings are entitled to life, liberty and property. In contemporary theory, these and other moral claims have come to be referred to as universal human rights and form the basis for establishing and/or evaluating ethical standards within the social order.
Beauchamp and Childress (2001) define a right as a "justified claim that individuals and groups can make upon other individuals or upon society; to have a right is to be in a position to determine by one's choices, what others should do or need not do". In the case of a legal right, the claim must be justified by legal principles and rules. Likewise, a moral right must find grounding in moral principles and rules. One form of rights does not necessarily lead to another, although this distinction is not well recognized in contemporary society.
Beauchamp and Childress go on to point out that, while some rights may be argued to be absolute, most are better considered as prima facie rights. In other words, most rights should be observed in the absence of competing claims: however, all rights are likely to be subject to compelling, competing claims at some point. For example, the fundamental right to life is often deferred in situations involving self-defense or killing during war.